Illustrated here are the 2 most common forms of back pain from doing the deadlift - often seen from the novice to intermediate levels amongst weightlifters.
More commonly, you are experiencing pain due to having tissues being compressed. The compressed tissue is either the lumbar discs or the paddings of the joints (E.X. SI joint & facet joints). At other times, you can have pain from tissues being over-stretched, and in this case, it is either your muscles or ligaments being over-stretched.
For illustrative purposes, curl your index finger and sit on it. This is the equivalent of joint compression under flexion. Tissues between your finger joints (the cartilagenous padding) get irritated and cause pain, followed by inflammation if you irritate it long enough. The same concepts can be applied to the lower back. Thus, you can imagine how over-stretching can occur in similiar fashion by hyper-extending your fingers.
Further, compression and over-stretch injuries can be narrowed down to 2 root-causes:
1. Core pressure provides straightness and rigidity to the lower back. This cannot be stressed enough. You need to learn how to produce maximum core pressure, so that you can hip hinge. If you are unfamiliar with core pressure (or bracing at the core), then you won't be able to hip hinge. If you can't hip hinge, you shouldn't deadlift.
2. Hip hinging allows you to exert maximum strength and lift from the gluteus maximus and the hamstring muscles. You never want to lift from the lumbar erector muscles. That is not a deadlift. If you cannot hip hinge properly, stop deadlifting.
Below are instructional reminders for patients who have received the proper workout, diagnosis, treatment and have been guided through an in-person instructional on how to achieve core pressure and perform the hip hinge proficiently. Seek your chiropractor, physiotherapist or exercise kinesiologist for more information.
How to brace at the core:
How to hip hinge:
So to sum up the article, start by learning to brace at the core, and then learn to hip hinge properly. By the time you are proficient with these two techniques, you can then begin deadlifting safely.